- About Us
- Who we are
- Values and Principles
- Strategy and Reports
- Contact Us
- What we do
- How we do it
- Policy and Movement Building
- Local Action for Gender Justice
- Empowering partners through grant making
This report outlines the outcomes of the Mauritius gender and rights indicators scoring meeting based on the Post 2015 SADC Protocol on Gender and Development. The indicators draw will form part of the SADC Gender and Development Index (SGDI). The meeting was organised by the SADC Protocol Alliance network with support from Gender Links. The scoring exercise will ensure an expanded, stronger gender index incorporating Constitution and Legal Rights. The index analyses the gender responsiveness in Constitutions laws, policies, practices and programmes. The index will be featured in the 2017 Barometer as a baseline. The meeting discussed the national level progress of the Governance, Constitution and Legal Rights cluster. The meeting discussed the gender and rights index in context of the updated SGDI.
The workshop aimed to:
- To analyse the progress of gender, Constitutional and legal Rights in Mauritius.
- To provide the rationale for each score of the Gender and Rights score card
- To provide scores for Constitution and Legal Rights based on the Protocol and the relevant Barometer chapter.
The Southern African Gender Protocol Alliance is a “network of networks” that campaigned for the SADC Protocol on Gender and Development (the Protocol), its ratification, adoption, adoption and now its implementation. The Alliance is represented in Mauritius by Media Watch Organisation.
The Protocol is a unique sub-regional instrument that brings together existing global and African commitments to gender equality and enhances these through specific targets and timeframes. The Protocol is now aligned to the Sustainable Development Goals, Beijing Plus Twenty and the African Union Agenda 2063.
A Monitoring, Evaluation and Results Framework accompanies the Protocol, which includes a set of gender indicators. The Alliance is in the process of reviewing the SGDI to incorporate new areas of the Protocol including Constitution and Legal Rights Provisions.
The meeting attracted experts on Constitution and Legal Rights was from the civil society, private sector and academia. The meeting had:
- 14 participants (8 women and 6 men), from across Mauritius. See Annex A for full list of participants for the meeting held on Thursday, 29th June 2017.
Quotes on Gender and Legal Rights Index:
|Ministry of Gender||No participant from the Ministry of Gender|
|Civil society||Opportunity to bring different non-government actors, students, legal counsel to debate and discuss about the reality of the country. And to work towards a common goal for the country|
|Interest group||Great Workshop for a great cause|
|Development partners||The main achievement was knowledge exchange, brainstorming and put ideas together|
Key activities and outcomes
SADC Gender and Rights index Scoring meeting- 29th June 2017
The SADC Gender and Rights index Scoring meeting organised by the Southern Gender Protocol Alliance under the aegis of Media Watch Organisation and Gender Links was held on the 29th June 2017. It was a very successful and instructive meeting. The objectives were:
- To score gender and rights indicators linked to the Post 2015 SADC Protocol on Gender and Development
- To provide scores for each indicator
- The score will be included in the SADC Gender and Development Index used as a yard stick in the SADC Gender Protocol Barometer 2017
Nesha Ramen SADC Protocol Alliance Focal person kick off the meeting with the introduction of the SADC Protocol Alliance objectives. The meeting facilitator explained that the Southern Gender Protocol Alliance is a network of networks in 15 SADC countries. This network has championed the signature of the SGP since 2008 and its subsequent ratification, and took the commitment to see to it that each SADC country review this pioneering document which encompasses all international and regional declarations on gender equality.
The workshop facilitator Nesha Ramen continued with a brief description on the constitutional and legal rights in Mauritius. The Republic of Mauritius is a signatory to a number of international treaties promoting and providing for equal rights including the Millennium Development Goals; the Sustainable Development Goals; UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Republic ratified the Optional Protocol of the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) in 2008 as well as the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa in 2005.
- Women gave a score of 59% and men a score of 61% using the citizens score card (CSC) that gauges citizen perceptions of progress made so far in Mauritius.
- Women gave a score of 73.5% and men a score of 70.1% using the citizens score card (CSC) that gauges citizen perceptions of progress made so far in Rodrigues.
- The 2011 Local government Act, which stipulates that at least one third of the candidates in local elections must be either women or men led to the amendment of the Constitution.
- The 2012 Criminal Code Amendment Act allows for the termination of pregnancy in special circumstances.
- The Republic has signed the United Nations (UN) Resolution on Human rights, Sexual Orientation and Gender Equality.
- Section 250 of the Criminal Code, dating from 1838, criminalises sodomy, without taking into account the consents between two adults. Before separating the participants into groups to work on the scorecard there was already questions on the mind of the participants. The questions that were asked by participants were very pertinent. Mauritius has signed several treaties, however, the main concerned was to what extent these treaties are being respected and adhere. The country has also a well-defined constitution and laws are being reviewed, amended and enacted accordingly. But, are there sufficient and adequate laws.The Alliance Focal person informed about the guidelines of how to analyse and score the score card and informed that each score need to follow with a comment. Participants were placed in two main groups.
- First group worked on first four Articles:
- ARTICLE 4: CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS
- ARTICLE 5: SPECIAL MEASURES
- ARTICLE 6: DOMESTIC LEGISLATION
- ARTICLE 7: EQUALITY IN ACCESSING JUSTICE
- Second group worked on the below Articles:
- ARTICLE 8: MARRIAGE AND FAMILY RIGHTS
- ARTICLE 9: PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES
- ARTICLE 10: WIDOWS’ AND WIDOWERS’ RIGHTS
- ARTICLE 11: THE GIRL AND THE BOY CHILD
Activity Outcomes Comments Analysis of indicators · Laws are enacted but no constitutional revision
· Supporting programmes, policies and action plan are in place but limited implementation of the programmes.
· There is a lack of awareness among public, students, vulnerable groups on subjects like on abortion, programmes, action plans, sexual security, best practices
· No methodology to track the implementation of the measures
· Acting passively on child marriage
· Reporting GBV cases procedures in police posts located in hospitals is a lengthy process
· There is statistics on cases of GBV reported in Police Stations and Family Protection Bureaux in Mauritius but there is no statistics on how many reported cases have been successfully prosecuted.
· Legal bureaucratic procedures for public services is very lengthy.
· No awareness programs as people between 16 and 18 can get married with parental consent, as depicted in the Civil Code.
· Forced marriage is not criminalised in Mauritius. Cases are not reported, meaning that we cannot take action.
· Constitution as well as laws need to be reviewed, amended and enacted
· Post 2015 Action Plan needs to be updated
· Need for a reform/amendment in the Criminal Code
Scoring of indicators It was quite difficult to score on the possible score as some items / Article were well defined for Mauritius and is doing well. Progress made by the Constitution and Legal Rights cluster The Constitution and Legal Rights Cluster come up with instructive ideas and propose concrete actions.
- Scored SADC Gender and Rights Score card.
- Brief rationale for scoring.
- Comments on the Gender and Rights index
- Overview of progress made by the national Constitution and Legal Rights cluster.
- Integration of the gender and rights score into the SGDI.
- Incorporation of country specific comments on Constitution and Legal Rights into the 2017 SADC Gender Protocol Barometer
- Preparation for the Alliance regional meeting to be held in August.
ANNEX A: FINAL PROGRAMME
ANNEX B: LIST OF PARTICIPANTS
Name and Surname Sex Organisation Position Cell Phone / Land Line Sivakoumaren Ramen M Media Watch Organisation Member 5713 6696 email@example.com Florent Didier Marcel M Rotary Club Tamarin Member 5798 6083 firstname.lastname@example.org Mary Coopan F Media Watch Organisation Treasurer 5780 6526 email@example.com Sheistah Bundhoo F Gender Links Programme and Finance Officer 5770 9846 firstname.lastname@example.org Anushka Virahsawmy F Gender Links Country Manager 5934 5787 email@example.com Mireille Invulnerable F Young Queer Alliance Auditor 5712 0922 firstname.lastname@example.org Yashvind Kumar Poteeram M Ministry of Infrastructure Counselor 57445216 email@example.com Meethilesh Nashib M Forescue Director / Jurist 58163228 firstname.lastname@example.org Sarah Belle F University France Student Chemistry email@example.com Zeim Gopee M University France Student Psychology 52568947 firstname.lastname@example.org Steffi Honiss
University France – Paris LLB Student email@example.com Azegen Mootoocurpen M Media Watch Organisation Auditor 5771 9807 firstname.lastname@example.org Nesha Ramen F Media Watch Organisation Alliance Focal person 5499 2720 Nesharamen2720@gmail.com Toshni Dabysing F University London LLB Student- Arbritarian and Commercial London email@example.com SPECIFIC TARGETS TO BE ACHIEVED BY 2030 INDICATOR Total possible score Total score Notes on scoring ARTICLES 4: CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS 25 16.5 1. Enshrine gender equality and equity in their Constitutions and ensure that any provisions, laws or practices do not compromise these. Constitution has been reviewed in line with the SADC Gender Protocol and other regional and international gender instruments. 2 1 Local Govt Act 2011 has been reviewed in terms of gender quota 1/3 of either sex (male or female). However, the constitution has not been amended. Provides for non- discrimination on the basis of sex and others e.g. marital status, pregnancy 2 1 No laws for same sex marriage. No laws for adoption by same sex couple. The word “spouse” has been redefined in the law to say that spouse is of opposite sex. No amended laws on abortion and pension for widower. Provides for the promotion of gender equality 2 2 Our Constitution go beyond the biological factor and provides equality of gender. The Constitution and laws have no claw back clauses that affect progress in gender equality 4 2 Child marriage- 16 years old girl can marry with the approval of parents. ““A minor over 16 and under 18 can contract civil marriage with the consent of his/her parents.” The Constitution addresses the contradictions between the constitution, provisions, laws and practices 5 2 Laws are enacted but no constitutional revision 2. Develop and strengthen specific laws, policies and programmes to achieve gender equality and equity. The country has a National Gender Policy/ Action Plan and supporting programmes that is well known and is being implemented 3 2 Supporting programmes, policies and action plan are in place but limited implementation of the programmes. There is a Lack of Awareness – public. Post 2015 Action Plan needs to be updated The country has a Gender Equality Act or equivalent that is used to advance gender equality 3 3 We have equivalent- piece of laws based on gender equality 3. Implement legislative and other measures to eliminate all practices which negatively affect the fundamental rights of women, men, girls and boys, such as their right to life, health, dignity, education and physical integrity. There are legislative measures, programmes involving policy makers/ religious and traditional leadership to raise awareness and eliminate harmful practices 2 1.5 There are Legislative measures, programmes, policies but limited awareness. For example
e: on abortion, programmes, action plans, sexual security, best practices
2 2 ARTICLE 5 : SPECIAL MEASURES 10 4.5 4. Put in place special measures with particular reference to women in order to eliminate all barriers which prevent them from participating meaningfully in all spheres of life and create a conducive environment for such participation. The Constitution and or laws allow for affirmative action 3 1 The constitution doesn’t provide for affirmative action nor the laws talk about affirmative action These have specific targets for women’s representation and participation 2 1.5 Gender Quota for Local Govt Act 2011 amended version-but in other fields like Media, Communication, Education etc there are still no special measures The measures are effectively tracked and implemented. 5 2 No methodology to track the implementation of the measures but we cannot disregard the gender quota in the local Govt Act. Example 1/3 ARTICLE 6: DOMESTIC LEGISLATION 50 35.5 5. Review, amend and or repeal all laws that discriminate on the ground of sex or gender All discriminatory laws have been amended or repealed 5 3 Not all laws have been reviewed – Some has been reviewed like the Equal Opportunity Act 2008 defined sexual orientation and include homosexuality. But the terms spouse has been redefined – spouse is said to be of opposite sex. 6. Enact and enforce legislative and other measures to ensure equal access to justice and protection before the law. Minority rights (eg the disabled, indegenous women, sex workers, sexual minorities) are protected 5 4 All categories have equal accesses in terms of legislation and measures- equal access to justice and law. (indigenous women not applicable for Mauritius) 7. Abolish the minority status of women. Age of majority for women and men is prescribed in law 3 3 Constitution and Law well defined Bride price (lobola) payment is not mandatory or abused to undermine the rights of women. 2 2 Bride price is mentioned in the constitution nor in any law Women can purchase land or immovable property without approval of their spouses, fathers or brothers 2 2 Women have the rights to purchase and own property Women can obtain birth certificates, Identity documents and passports without the consent of their spouses 2 1.5 Birth Certificate, Identity Card, Passport can be obtained without the approval of the spouses, fathers or brothers. For Marriage certificate signature of spouse is mandatory 8. Eliminate practices which are detrimental to the achievement of the rights of women by prohibiting such practices and attaching deterrent sanctions thereto. Laws in place to prohibit harmful traditional practices 2 1.5 Laws protects against harmful practices. Child marriage as per “Code Civil” is allowed with parents’ consent. ““A minor over 16 and under 18 can contract civil marriage with the consent of his/her parents.” Forced marriage- no visibility or statistics There is evidence of harmful traditional practices being effectively dealt with and declining 3 1 Acting passively on child marriage 9. Enact and enforce legislative and other measures to eliminate gender based violence. Comprehensive laws to address all forms of GBV 2 2 Laws are amended / enacted to address all forms of GBV Integrated GBV services within an accessible distance 3 2 Hotline 24/7 are accessible GBV Services / family support Unit to help and support. In terms, of Infrastructures- need more shelters under GBV Services Victim friendly services at police stations 3 1.5 24 hours’ support and help in police station for victims but support from Female Family Protection Inspector only when the latter is on duty Health services equiped to address GBV 3 2 Health services are well equipped to address GBV cases in terms of machines, infrastructure. However, reporting GBV cases procedures in police posts located in hospitals is a lengthy process Increase in reported cases of GBV 3 3 Statistics Feb 2017: 1 to 4 women victims of GBV in Mauritius Proportion of reported GBV cases successfully prosecuted. 3 1.5 There is statistics on cases of GBV reported in Police Stations and Family Protection Bureaux in Mauritius but there is no statistics on how many reported cases have been successfully prosecuted. Effective prevention campaigns 3 2.5 Campaigns is being done but need to create more awareness : public, students. The methodology of campaigning need to be reviewed / be more innovative and attractive Changing attitudes towards GBV 3 2 Trainings of the public resources:law enforcement bodies : Police, Lawyers. Need to reach out to larger group and population Evidence of GBV declining 3 1 Statistic provide increasing rate but not decreasing rate ARTICLES 7: EQUALITY IN ACCESSING JUSTICE 50 37 10. Put in place legislative and other measures which promote and ensure the practical realisation of equality for women. The country has put in place special measures, policies and laws to ensure equal participation of men and women in public and private life 5 3 Local Govt Act 2011 has been reviewed in terms of gender quota 1/3 . For private life – no provision 11. Ensure equality in the treatment of women in judicial and quasi-judicial proceedings, or similar proceedings, including customary and traditional courts, and national reconciliation processes. Evidence of measures to promote equal treatment of women in judicial proceedings in civil; traditional; criminal courts; national reconciliation processes. 5 5 Constitution + laws well defined 12. Ensure equal legal status and capacity in civil and customary law, including, amongst other things, full contractual rights, the right to acquire and hold rights in property, the right to equal inheritance and the right to secure credit. Women can purchase property without approval from their spouses 4 4 Women can purchase property without approval Women can access credit without approval from their spouses 3 1.5 Women have the right to access credit- but if the women are not financially dependent need approval of spouse or guarantor 13. Ensure the encouragement of all public and private institutions to enable women to exercise their legal capacity. Awareness programmes on women’s rights and the justice system 4 3 Need to create more awareness on justice system for the public especially vulnerable groups 14. Ensure that positive and practical measures are taken to ensure equality for women complainants in the criminal justice system. The judiciary promotes equal access to justice through awareness programmes and promotional materials 5 3.5 Laws + constitution reviewed and amended. But need to create more awareness programmes and promotes the programmes- not ongoing. It should be a continuous process The judiciary is frequently trained on gender equality and women’s rights. 5 3.5 15. Provision of educational programmes to address gender bias and stereotypes and promote equality for women in the legal system. Increase in female students enrolling and graduating for LLB degrees 4 3.5 Increase in female students 16. Ensure that women have equitable representation on, and participation in, all courts including traditional courts, alternative dispute resolution mechanisms and local community courts. Proportion of female and male judges, magistrates, prosecutors, chiefs , including in traditional courts and alternative dispute resolution mechanisms. 5 3 Well balanced proportion. Equilibrium is based on merits and career achievement. In 2015, 40% of Senior position in Government Services constitute of females. However, Women are largely under-represented in decision making at higher sphere of society. For e.g the number of female parliamentarians is 8 out of a total of 70. 17. Ensure accessible and affordable legal services for women. Existence of state supported free legal aid for women. 3 2.5 Support provided for vulnerable groups. Free assistance by Government Extend to which supply matches demand 5 2.5 Legal bureaucratic procedures for public services is very lengthy. Free of charge services is provided to a specific category of people who meet the financial and socio economic criteria. Demand exceeds supply. Especially in our local context (country). Success rate of cases taken up with free legal assistance 2 2 Success rate is subjective, no statistic rate. ARTICLES 8: MARRIAGE AND FAMILY RIGHTS 30 21 18. Enact and adopt appropriate legislative, administrative and other measures to ensure that women and men enjoy equal rights in marriage and are regarded as equal partners in marriage. Married women can retain their maiden surname 2 2 Matter of culture/education Marital rape is criminalised 2 1 Need for a reform/amendment in the Criminal Code Women can choose any contraception method without the consent of their partners 2 2 Matter of culture/education ; Family planning offers free contraception 19. Ensure that no person under the age of 18 shall marry. Legal age for marriage (women and men) is 18 5 1 16 with the consent of parents; reason why Mauritius cannot change sign as it is present in our Civil Code. Reasons for stagnation: political will, Juv Civil Status act must be amended to make the legal age of marriage 18. and above Programmes in place to raise awareness against early and child marriages 3 1 No awareness programs as people between 16 and 18 can get married with parental consent, as depicted in the Civil Code. In canonical “law”, there is no awareness or “preparation” towards 16s, only a prep when the legal age of majority is reached. 20. Ensure that every marriage takes place with the free and full consent of both parties. Forced marriage is criminalised 2 1 Forced marriage is not criminalised in Mauritius. Cases are not reported, meaning that we cannot take action. Marriages of 16 yr old children, with the consent of parents are very often forced by the parents themselves. 21. Ensure that every marriage, including civil, religious, traditional or customary, is registered in accordance with national laws. Percentage of civil, religious, traditional or customary marraiges enforced by law. 3 2 No customary marriages take place in Mauritius. Muslim family councils register marriages under the Muslim Personal Law, 22. Ensure that during the subsistence of their marriage the parties shall have reciprocal rights and duties towards their children with the best interests of the children always being paramount. Custody court rulings consider women and men as equal potential custodians of children 3 2 The Civil Law of Mauritius makes paramount the security and wellbeing of the child. 23. Enact and adopt appropriate legislative and other measures to ensure that where spouses separate, divorce or have their marriage annulled; they shall have reciprocal rights and duties towards their children with the best interests of the children always being paramount. 2 The Civil Law of Mauritius makes paramount the security and wellbeing of the child. 24. Ensure that where spouses separate, divorce or have their marriage annulled; they shall, subject to the choice of any marriage regime or marriage contract, have equitable share of property acquired during their relationship. The practice of ‘wife inheritance’ is outlawed 2 2 Two types of “contracts” exist: 1. Corps et bien; 2. separation des biens. It’s the choice of the couple. 25. Put in place legislative and other measures to ensure that parents honour their duty of care towards their children, and maintenance orders are enforced. Minimum child maintenance costs per child (US$) is enforced by law 3 2 In Mauritius, we have the SRM. If you are underneath the poverty line, the government gives out grants. In case of single parents under the poverty line, grants are also available from the government. Up to the first three children. Poverty line = MUR 6,500 = ZAR 2,450/monthly 26. Put in place legislative provisions which ensure that married women and men have the right to choose whether to retain their nationality or acquire their spouse’s nationality Provision/ amendment of legislation ensuring right to choose nationality at marriage 3 3 Mauritians citizens have the right to have 2 nationalities, at marriage. ARTICLE 9: PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES 5 4 27. Adopt legislation and related measures to protect persons with disabilities that take into account their particular vulnerabilities. There are special measure to promote participation of persons with disabilities in public and private life 1 1 No accessible infrastructure in place for wheelchairs or even people with crutches. Labour laws ensure equal rights and special facilities for persons with disabilities 2 1 A quota of disabled persons has to be employed by companies. Training and Employment of Disabled Person Act (inclusion). An enterprise having a workforce with a strength of 35 or more should employ at least 3% with disabilities. Nonetheless, the actuality of the situation is different: 300K people have disabilities and only 8575 are actually employed, according to Statistics Mauritius. disabilities is enforced by law 1 1 Laws exist to protect people with disabilities, but are not necessarily enforced by law. Persons with disabilities are protected by law 1 1 Implementation of the law is not mainstream, but the law exists. ARTICLE 10: WIDOWS’ AND WIDOWERS’ RIGHTS 10 9.5 28. Enact and enforce legislation to ensure that widows and widowers are not subjected to inhuman, humiliating or degrading treatment. Existence of national legislation protecting the rights of widows and widowers. 2 2 Mauritius has legislation to protect and respect human beings and their rights in general. 29. Ensure that widows and widowers automatically become the guardians and custodians of their children when their husband/wife dies, unless otherwise determined by a competent court of law. Custody court rulings consider widows and widowers as equal potential custodians of children after the death of a spouse 2 2 Automatically, the widow/widower would become the legal guardians 30. Ensure that widows and widowers get equitable share in the inheritance of the property of their spouses. Widows and widowers are protected by law to receive full inheritance from their late spouse 2 1.5 Laws exist stipulating that widows/widowers are protected. Although different cases have different outcomes. 31. Ensure that widows and widowers have the right to remarry any person of their choice. Wife inheritance is outlawed 2 2 Widows and Widowers have the right to remarry. Laws exist stipulate that widows/widowers are protected. 32. Ensure that widows and widowers have protection against all forms of violence and discrimination based on status. Witchcraft killings/violence linked to widows and widowers is investigated and outlawed 2 2 Culturally, witchcraft is looked down upon but not legally. It is under the act of effecting public mischief, which is liable for punishment by law. ARTICLE 11: THE GIRL AND THE BOY CHILD 20 19 33. Adopt laws, policies and programmes to ensure the development and protection of the girl and the boy child. Adequacy of child protection centres 2 1.5 Mauritius has associations and groups for the protection of children: they run child protection centres. Rehabilitation Youth Centres exist, but they are not effective. Nonetheless, we are legally equipped to protect children 34. Eliminate all forms of discrimination against the girl and the boy child in the family, community, institutions and at state levels. Pregnant students and teenage mothers are allowed to continue with their education 2 1.5 The Committee recommends that the State party, taking into account its general comment No. 4 (2003) on adolescent health and development in the context of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC/GC/2003/4):
– Provide particular support to pregnant teenagers, including through community structures and social security benefits and ensure their completion of education. source: Convention on the Rights of the Child
Combined Third, Fourth and Fifth Periodic Report
By the Republic of Mauritius
35. Ensure that the girl and the boy child have equal access to education and health care, and are not subjected to any treatment which causes them to develop a negative self-image. Equal access to education and health care for the boy and girl child. 2 2 Laws + constitution provide equal rights and access to girls and boys. No discrimination in terms of education, health care etc. 36. Ensure that the girl and the boy child enjoy the same rights and are protected from harmful cultural attitudes and practices in accordance with international and regional instruments. Discriminatory aspects of girl child initiation into womanhood eg virginity testing is abolished 2 2 No laws specifically dictate that harmful cultural attitudes are illegal. Negative aspects of boy child initiation into manhood, eg bullying and violence, is abolished 2 2 No specific law. 37. Protect the girl and the boy child from economic exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence including sexual abuse. The country has a law and programmes outlawing trafficking in persons 2 2 Laws against trafficking and abuse exist, but statistically, trafficking and abuse has gone up. 38. Ensure that the girl and the boy child have equal access to information, education, services and facilities on sexual and reproductive health and rights. Girls and boys have equal access to inheritance of parents or guardian’s estate. 3 3 The law is clear and stipulates that there is equal access. 39. Develop concrete measures to prevent and eliminate violence, harmful practices, child marriages, forced marriages, teenage pregnancies and genital mutilation as well as mitigate their impacts on girls’ and boys’ health, wellbeing, education, future opportunities and earnings. Effective prevention programmes on traditional practices that harm the girl and boy child. 2 2 There are measures done by NGOs on the wellbeing of boys and girls, but there isn’t a law enforcement 40. Develop concrete measures to prevent child labour as well as mitigate its impact on girls’ and boys’ health, wellbeing, education, future opportunities and earnings. Child labour is prohibited 3 3 Legally, children are prohibited from work. This is well stipulated by the Civil Law. Education is compulsory up till the age of 16. Total 200 73.5